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The success of JIT depends on the ability to synchronize and coordinate steps of the manufacturing process so that materials and products are where they need to be, when they need to be there.In the 1950s, JIT, in combination with the Japanese manufacturing method of Jidoka or autonomation (automation with a human touch on an exceptions basis), would become the twin foundations of the Toyota Production System (TPS).Its core principle was the systematic removal of waste in an ongoing effort to improve efficiency.A couple of decades later, after the 1973 Arab oil embargo caused energy crises in the United States, Japan, Canada, UK, and the Netherlands, other Japanese companies began to study and imitate TPS. It brought: The concepts of Muda, Muri, and Mura (three types of waste that are known as the 3M) are central to the idea of eliminating waste.A Project Management Institute conference paper by Aziz Moujib describes Lean project management as the application of Lean manufacturing principles to the project management process.
Manufacturers also began to implement some of the Lean manufacturing techniques, though in isolation from the overarching business management philosophy.
However, that’s a misconception because every process, whether in production or services, can benefit from a Lean approach.
Today, Lean is finding a home in every industry from finance to healthcare.
Mura describes operational “unevenness,” which can be thought of as the irregular performance of work that increases costs and possibly decreases efficiency over time.
In the 1980s, Western manufacturers discovered that Japanese companies were outperforming them.